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5 abr 2012

Correlation between efficiency in performing body elements and elements with a ball in rhythmic gymnastics

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Basic elements of rhythmic gymnastics are divided into: body elements (elements with no apparatus) and elements with apparatus. The distinction is that rhythmic gymnastics has to combine two motor tasks simultaneously. Based on the above fact the research has been conducted in order to establish connection between the performances of rhythmic gymnastics’ elements without apparatus with successful performing of technique elements with a ball.

Autor(es):Furjan-Mandi?, Gordana; Josipa Radaš, Josipa; Melita Kolarec, Melita
Entidades(es):Faculty of Kinesiology, Zagreb, Croatia; Club of Rhytmic Gymnastic, Leda, Zagreb, Croatia
Congreso: VII congreso de la asociación internacional de escuelas superiores de educación física (AIESEP)
Úbeda A Coruña, 26-29 de Octubre de 2010
ISBN: 9788461499465
Palabras claves:body elements, ball, correlation

Correlation between efficiency in performing body elements and elements with a ball in rhythmic gymnastics

ABSTRACT

Basic elements of rhythmic gymnastics are divided into: body elements (elements with no apparatus) and elements with apparatus. The distinction is that rhythmic gymnastics has to combine two motor tasks simultaneously. Based on the above fact the research has been conducted in order to establish connection between the performances of rhythmic gymnastics’ elements without apparatus with successful performing of technique elements with a ball. The sample of subjects in this study consisted of female 122 students. All the subjects have successfully overcome the given elements and were given a positive mark on the final exam in Rhythmic gymnastics.

All subjects were examined by a 13 tests (Furjan-Mandic, 2007). Ten tests were based on elements without apparatus that were, in this test, used as independent (predictor) variables. Correlations between the performances of the elements without apparatus to performance of the elements with a ball were determined by multiple regression analysis. The research has indicated that there is a significant correlation in performance of some rhythmic gymnastics’ elements without apparatus and effectiveness in carrying out selected tasks with the ball.

INTRODUCTION AND AREA OF STUDY

It is known that rhythmic gymnastics is a complex sport because, in order to be successful in this sport, the coordination is at the top of the specification equation. A specific quality is that a rhythmic gymnast must combine two motor tasks simultaneously. The gymnast has to manipulate an apparatus at the same time with a correct performance of body elements. Judges evaluate every element in accordance with the following characteristics: difficulty, artistry, execution (Jastrjembskaia, and Titov, Y. 1999). The gymnast performs body elements (elements without apparatus) with the whole body or parts of the body.

Body elements, together with elements with apparatus, make the core of rhythmic gymnastics as a sport. Therefore, we can consider that body elements make the basis of elements in rhythmic gymnastics, thus one needs to pay special attention to them in the first phase of studying. Rhythmic gymnastics is the sport whose training sessions start in the very early age, between 5 and 7 years of age. Girls of that age must go through basic body elements and learn their correct technique in order to later integrate it in routines with apparatus (Wolf-Cvitak, 2004). The objective of this study is to establish correlation between efficiency in performing rhythmic gymnastics elements without apparatus and elements with a ball.

Thereby, the intent would be to establish whether there is any justification for learning elements without apparatus at the very beginning of working with children, as well as the justification for an educational program of rhythmic gymnastics in elementary and high schools, as well as at universities, where elements without apparatus are adopted in the first place (jumps/leaps, balances, pirouettes, waves, flexibilities, etc.), and learning elements with apparatus continues only after that. In this study, the efficiency in performing exercises with a ball was evaluated, because the ball is a rhythmic gymnastics apparatus which female students come across most often in the physical education, i.e. it is the apparatus that they already came across in some other sports (basketball, handball, volleyball, etc.), or rather it is not completely unknown to them. In accordance with the aforementioned objective, the study is based on an assumption that there is correlation between efficiency in performing elements without apparatus and elements with a ball in rhythmic gymnastics.

METHODOLOGY

Sample of subjects

The sample of subjects in this research consisted of 122 female students in the 2nd year of the Faculty of Kinesiology in the period from 2000 to 2002. All subjects had successfully overcome given elements as a part of preliminary exam and got a passing grade for the exam in rhythmic gymnastics.

Description of experimental procedure

All subjects were tested with a series of 13 tests (Furjan-Mandi?, 2007). Ten tests consisted of elements without apparatus that were used in this testing as independent (predictor) variables.

•BPPZ-combination of leaps with a bent leg forward and back split,

•BGNS-gallop forward and sideways,

•BKV-waltz step,

•BSDV-split leap,

•BSJ-stag leap,

•BSC-split leap with ¼ turn,

•BSK-fouetté leap,

•BSM-scissors forward with bent legs and rotation of 360°,

•BOZ-two pirouettes en dedans (turning inwards toward the front leg),

•BOO-pirouette en dehors (turning outwards toward the back leg). Other 3 tests consist of elements with a ball, constituting three dependent (criterion) variables:

•LO-throwing the ball, turn (360°), catching,

•LKV-rhythmic ball bouncing with a waltz step,

•LS2-2 leaps with throwing and catching the ball,

The abovementioned evaluated elements were taken from the Code of Points for rhythmic gymnastics, in which one can find difficulty values for each element, as well as their performance methods. Firstly, the subjects performed elements without apparatus and then elements with apparatus.Efficiency in performing given elements is evaluated with grades from 2 to 5, where 2 represents the lowest and 5 the highest grade. Given elements were evaluated by three experts in rhythmic gymnastics, who also have a degree in kinesiology.

Rhythmic gymnastics elements were evaluated in accordance with preset criteria. Firstly, the subjects performed elements without apparatus and then elements with apparatus. Efficiency in performing given elements is evaluated with grades from 2 to 5, where 2 represents the lowest and 5 the highest grade. Given elements were evaluated by three experts in rhythmic gymnastics, who also have a degree in kinesiology. Rhythmic gymnastics elements were evaluated in accordance with preset criteria.

Data processing methods

For the purpose of this research, data have been processed by the statistics software package Statistica for Windows 5.0. Correlations between performances of elements without apparatus and performances of elements with a ball were determined by multiple regression analysis. Table 1. Regression Summary for Dependent Variable LO: pTable 1. Correlation between efficiency in performing body elements and elements with a ball in rhythmic gymnastics

Contenido disponible en el CD Colección Congresos nº 16

 

In Table 1 there are results of multiple regression analysis for the criterion variable LO (throwing the ball, turn (360°), catching). From the table we can see that the p-value (level of significance) equals to zero, which means that the maximum correlation between all predictor variables and the criterion variable is statistically significant. Based on that, it can be concluded that there is a significant correlation between efficiency in performing rhythmic gymnastics elements without apparatus and performing elements with a ball.

Furthermore, from the results (Table 1) it is obvious that the highest correlations are made between grades from five elements without apparatus and performances of elements with a ball (combination of leaps with a bent leg forward and back split, waltz step, split leap with ¼ turn, fouetté leap and scissors forward with bent legs and rotation of 360°). Since the task of throwing the ball with a turn is complex and coordination demanding, it is not surprising that grades of a greater number of elements without apparatus (from simpler hops, steps, leaps/jumps, leaps/jumps with turns) made significant correlations with the same. Table 2: Regression Summary for Dependent Variable LKV: pTable 2. Correlation between efficiency in performing body elements and elements with a ball in rhythmic gymnastics

Contenido disponible en el CD Colección Congresos nº 16

 

In Table 2 there are results of multiple regression analysis for the criterion variable LKV (rhythmic ball bouncing with a waltz step), and in Table 3 there are results of multiple regression analysis for the criterion variable LS2 (two leaps/jumps with throwing and catching a ball). The level of significance (p-value) is lower than 0,05, which also points to a statistical significance of multiple correlation.

On the basis of results in Tables 2 and 3, it can be concluded that there is no statistically significant correlation between predictors and criterion, which leads to a conclusion that the technique of the apparatus itself is manifested in LKV and LS2 elements, and in a smaller part the body technique. Table 3: Regression Summary for Dependent Variable LS2: pTable 3. Correlation between efficiency in performing body elements and elements with a ball in rhythmic gymnastics

Contenido disponible en el CD Colección Congresos nº 16

 

CONCLUSION

The carried out research showed that there is a significant correlation between performing some elements without apparatus and performing selected tasks with a ball in rhythmic gymnastics. Such results lead to a conclusion that there is objective justification that body elements are to be taught before starting to adopt basic tasks with apparatus in rhythmic gymnastics. In the future it would be interesting to establish in further researches whether there is correlation between efficiency in performing tasks with other rhythmic gymnastics apparatuses (rope, hoop, clubs and ribbon) reciprocally.

REFERENCES

Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique. (2005): Code of Points for Rhythmic Gymnastics 2005. Rhythmic Gymnastics Technical Committee.

Furjan-Mandi?, G. (2007): Rhythmic gymnastics. Handbook. Zagreb: Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb.

Jastrjembskaia, N., Titov, Y. (1999): Rhythmic Gymnastics. United States of America: Human Kinetics.

Wolf-Cvitak, J. (2004): Rhythmic gymnastics. Zagreb: Kugler, Textbooks of the University of Zagreb.

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