1 oct 2013
The sports dancer’s body, either in standard dancing or Latin dance, seems to float, glide effortlessly with an exquisite grace on the dance floor, as if permanently defying the laws of equilibrium, of forces and motion mechanisms
Autor(es): PhD Professor Mircea Neam?u Assistant Professor, PhD candidate Dana Pîrvulescu
Entidades(es): "TRANSILVANIA" UNIVERSITY OF BRASOV
Congreso: X Congreso Internacional sobre la Enseñanza de la Educación Física y el Deporte Escolar
Pontevedra, 5 al 8 de Septiembre de 2013
Palabras Clave: modern equipment, dance, performance, equilibrium, center of gravity, statics, stability, balance, position
IntroductionThe sports dancer’s body, either in standard dancing or Latin dance, seems to float, glide effortlessly with an exquisite grace on the dance floor, as if permanently defying the laws of equilibrium, of forces and motion mechanisms. Nothing, however, deviates from some universal laws and rules, the virtuosity of execution being due to the very knowledge, respect and their use. It is important to analyze the dancer’s motion from a general to a particular perspective, in order to understand how he moves, how he uses strength and gravity, the inertia, how the dancer can keep his balance in individual and couple turns. The motion convention determines in dancing, as in every sport, an integrative convergence of scientific interests in order to explain the phenomenon. It is known that every motion performance, in every sport, is based on motion guided by biomechanical laws. From a general point of view, dance biomechanics encloses: - Static studies – positions and equilibrium conditions of forces acting on the dancers’ bodies; - Dynamic studies – the cause of motion, internal forces; - Kinematic studies- development process of dance moves; Biomechanical knowledge helps dancing to study and fathom technical motion.
1. DANCE EQUILIBRIUMDuring dancing, the body of the dancer is considered to be in balance when his evolution is determined by the state of balance. This can be static or dynamic. In order to acquire this state the following conditions have to be fulfilled by the dancer:
- The center of the body mass has to fall on the support plan of the body;
- The sum of forces acting on the body has to be equal to zero.
- Body mass
- Inertia law
- Summed up-force law
- Reaction law
2. DANCING STATICSThe static activity of the muscles ensures the positions of the dancers’ bodies as a whole or individually. According to the biomechanical conditions (of balance), static activity can be of three types: for maintenance, for consolidation or for fixation. We understand under Static Maintenance activity that sort of isometric muscle contraction which ensures the position, acting against the force of gravity. (Example: the muscle maintaining the arms of the male and the female in a closed position, in standard dancing) The Static Consolidation activity, mostly encountered at females, is carried simultaneously by the antagonistic muscles, in cases combined with the fixation activity in different static technical elements which also require support from the partner. The Static activity of fixation (the most encountered in dance) ensures the body’s equilibrium. It is carried out by the antagonistic muscles, which fight against forces tending to modify the static equilibrium. In the static of dancers’ body it is mainly distinguished the instable equilibrium, given by the inferior support and not coming back to the initial position of the body or its segments. In the case of a couple, the closer the projection of the partners’ center of the gravity is to the centre of the support surface of the couple, the more secure is the state of equilibrium.
APPLICATIONDancing represents a sequence of rhythmic moves executed on a melody’s tact. It is a manner of artistic expression of the human body. Dancing represents active rest, and at early ages it is necessary motion. In dance, the body is the instrument, and as any other instrument, it has to be well studied and controlled. Acquiring this technique can be made only through intense muscle training, an intense interior feeling and a high class preparation. All these have led dance specialists to finding new ways of training. As a result, some devices and instruments were invented and adapted, which can contribute to the training for performance. The group of dance specialists from Brasov has tried this and will carry on with it. They have introduced some modern equipment in the process of training and evaluation. Although this equipment had initially another purpose, it was found that it can be adapted for dance as well. The results were seen fast. INSTRUMENTS TO MEASURE AND TEST THE DANCE PERFORMANCE
- "MLD" disc for testing the muscular performance
- "The jumps carpet Miron Georgescu, Type MGM-15"
- As a result of using these Methods of Measure, Evaluation and Organization, the specific activity of trainers can be more efficient, both on the regional and the national level.
- A Unitary System of Measure and Evaluation, Unanimously Accepted is created, with the help of which a connection bridge can be developed between national lots, on levels of instructions and between the dancers and trainers from the clubs.
- Special individual programs for dancers and trainers can be created, that can work according to national and international calendars of competition.
- The system can create a model which can be used by the next generations of trainers, that will know at that time the norms, standards of evolution of the dancers, starting with the beginners’ level up to the great performance (in time, it can be compared with future models)
- By using these programs and register cards, both the activity of the dancers and the one of the trainers is accurately and objectively administered.