The response of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (dhea) to competition in female volleyball players
Hormonal responses to competitions and their relationships have been extensively examined in men athletes, but not in females. The aim of this study is to determine the reaction of salivary Dehydroepiandrostrone and cortisol to competition level in female volleyball players.The subjects volunteered were 10 female volleyball players with age of 21.4±1.1yr. The saliva samples were collected at about 30 minutes and 5 minutes before the start of the match and also during the intermission time between the two sets(2 and 3). Immediately when the game was over, and 30 minutes there after, the the last 2 samples Were collected. The condensation of Dehydroepiandrosterone and salivary cortisol were measured in a duplicate manner, using ELISA method. One-way variance analysis of repeated measure was statistically applied and the significance level was set of P<0.05.The results showed that the salivary cortisol level was increased(P=0.04). However, the level of saliva DHEA was not affected during the competition(P0.05). It is concluded that the salivary cortisol level was increased in female volleyball players during in the competitions. Perhaps this is one of the reasons for why the important tournaments are scheduled out of the off seasons, in which the catabolic hormonal activities are at highest level.
IntroductionThe meaning of stress has assumed a ubiquitous connotation in today’s society. Stress has come to embody closely every agent that induces physiological or psychological tension. The word “stress” was introduced in 1935 by Hans Selye42, who illustrated the something as not specific physical changes that happened in reaction to bodily injurious stimuli, or “stressors.” More lately, stress has come to embody negative effects on the system in which stressors bring out a bodily response sensed as disquiet or one that factores anxiety36 . More suitably, anyway, stress is the sum of biology reactions to natural and external stimuli that bring about a agitation from homeostasis6. Stress practiced chronically can have populared negative effects on a number of physiological systems, including procreation46 , growth41, metabolism44, immune function23,36, and behavior6. The act of adapting to physical or psychological stress commonly include the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis. The resulting release of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, anterior pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone, and adrenal glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone) in foresight of or throughout stressful situations is explained as a homeostatic response of the body11.
while times of stress, the increased metabolic demands of the body can be met through glucocorticoid release. The bioavailability and metabolic clearance of glucocorticoids are managed in section by binding globulins. Free, not bound glucocorticoids can enter cells and permit energy mobilization to fuel fight or-flight responses34. The degree and duration of the increase in glucocorticoid concentrations over basal levels are indicative of stress, and greater glucocorticoid concentrations above longer length of time are explained as indicating more stressful location 3,7,11,30,43. Between the hormones answer to train and stress, cortisol is apparently the more affected39. because of changed circulating levels with different forms of train, cortisol has been accustomed to determine the physiological stress required throughout single and done again train sessions.DHEA is a very important prohormone secreted in big amounts by the adrenals in humans and other primates, but not in lower species. It is secreted in larger quantities than cortisol and is exhibit in the blood at concentrations just second to cholesterol. All the enzymes needed to change DHEA into androgens and estrogens are declared in a cell-specific manner in a large sequence of peripheral mark tissues, so allowing total androgen-sensitive and estrogen-sensitive tissues to make locally and control the intracellular levels of sex steroids in accord with local requires31. DHEA can be altered to testosterone, androstendione, estradiol, and estrone15.
Salivary diagnosis is an increasingly significant field in physiology, immunology, endocrinology, psychology, and sports medicine21. composition of Salivary while train is influenced by the autonomous nervous system and the HPA. Vining et al. (1983) have study salivary steroids to be without connection to of salivary stream ratio and exhibiting balance with blood concentrations. The researchers propose that salivary cortisol may in fact provide a better measure that serum cortisol of the stress response, as it more exactly measures the amount of unbound cortisol compared to serum measures. Salivary cortisol, as characteristic of circulating free cortisol, has been suggest as an indicator of exercising stress 39 and its employ has in addition been adopted, because this avoids the stress caused by venepuncture 32 and reflects the free plasma concentration and bioactive ingredient of steroid hormones. little studies have explained increases in cortisol concentration following a soccer match with different samples and models.Carli et al. (1986) investigated a sample of semi-professional players during competitive matchs due plasma cortisol 4 . Haneishi et al. (2007) on the other side, due salivary cortisol, studied female soccer players comparing training exercise session with an real match22.Ispirlidis et al. (2008) lately investigated the effect of a single soccer game on indicators of performance, muscle injury and inflammation25. It would seem that cortisol and adrenal androgens do not have the similar response to a season of exercising and competition. Plasma concentrations of androstenedione and DHEA have been reported to increase, but this change has been found to depend on the level of performance of the subjects and on the intensity of the exercise8,26. furthermore, these studies have been carried out on athletic sports or in laboratory tests using blood samples.
Elite sport with professional players in an actual environment setting is an appropriate field to study the response of salivary steroid to stress. In addition, despite the advantages compared with blood sampling, salivary measurement of biologically available levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone has been neglected in the coaching science field. The effect of competition on adrenocortical activity in coaches has, as far as know, never been reported. It is reasonable to admit that responses of salivary cortisol and DHEA to competition within female volleyball players in a true environment setting, during an actual competitive season, with important ecological validity, remain to be resolved. With this in mind, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that adrenocortical hormones could be increased in female volleyball players, during an actual competitive season, after a competitive match. This study was designed to evaluate the response of salivary adrenocortical hormones ( F and DHEA) to steress in female volleyball players. This study also evaluated the effect of stress on the profiles of mood states (POMS).
Area of studySport & Exercise Physiology
MethodologyExperimental approach to the problem To test the hypothesis that salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) could be increased after a professional vollyball match, during the competitive season, saliva samples were obtained from subjects before and after a competitive competition vollyball match during the competitive season. Salivary samples and profiles of mood states (POMS) were obtained before (PRE), during competition (Competition) and after competition (POST). The aim was to model an actual match with specific characteristics.
SubjectsThe sample comprised 10 female professional volleyball players (age 21.44 ± 1.13 years, height 163.22 ± 3.53 cm, body mass 58.73 ± 5.61 kg), who volunteered to participate in this study.
Saliva collectionThe subjects abstained from food and caffeine products for at least 2 h prior to the collection of saliva. Unstimulated saliva was collected into sterile 15-ml centrifuge tubes over a 5-min period. Immediately after collection, the saliva samples were frozen and stored at -80°C until assayed for cortisol concentration.
AssaysThe assays for Concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol (F) were quantitated by ELISA, with commercially available kits ( DEMEDITEC Diagnostics ELISA -Germany- sensitivity 0.012 ng/ml for F; sensitivity 5.6 pg/ml for DHEA).
Statistical analysesThe cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentration was measured by ELISA. Statistical analyses Data are reported as means and standard deviation (SD). Repeated-measures ANOVA on time factor was used to compare the concentration cortisol and DHEA in PRE and POST competition. The statistical one-way variance analysis of multiple measurements and correlation factor of Pearson was applied on the collected data. The relationship between profiles of mood states (POMS) and salivary cortisol and DHEA changes were evaluated by means of Spearman rank correlation analysis. P values of <0.05 were considered significant.
ResultsThe results showed that the salivary cortisol level was increased(P=0.04). However, the level of saliva DHEA was not affected during the competition(P<0.05).
Salivary cortisol and DHEA concentrationTable 1 Salivary cortisol for volleyball players (mean ± SD)(n = 10)
Table 1. The response of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (dhea) to competition in female volleyball players
Significance was set at P 0.05 PRE, befor competitin; DURING, competition; POST, after competition
Table 1 gives individual salivary F and DHEA significantly changes from PRE to POST competition. Levels of F and DHEA increased significantly during competition.
Profiles Of Mood StatesTable 2 Profiles Of Mood States for volleyball players (mean ± SD)
Table 2. The response of salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (dhea) to competition in female volleyball players
Significance was set at P 0.05 PRE, befor competition POST, after competition
Table 2 indicate the fatigue and tension scores of POMS increased significantly after competition compared with PRE (P<0.05).
DiscussionStress is sensed differently by different individuals, and what is perceived as disturbing or unnerving to one may be exciting and stimulating to another. Chronic stress can cause an upregulation of the HPA axis, resulting in a greater release of cortisol during acute stresses [10,23,40]. presentation stress experiment clearly illustrated the variability in the cortisol response to presentation stress. The key finding of the present investigation was the observation of a trend to increase in salivary cortisol and DHEA with statistical significance. This may be explained, by situational factors and individual aspects. A place of competition might increased emotional stress inherent within the competitive environment. Theoretically, such additional stressors may arise from interactions with players, the match situation, and importance of the game .
Filaire et al. (1999) noted that the real competition induces greater hormonal responses in elite female handball and volleyball players compared with laboratory exercise . These results are in agreement with Haneishi et al. (2007), who reported similar effect of competition compared with a regular practice session in female collegiate soccer players . also Moreira et al. (2009) reported the influence of intensive competitive training match alone appears to be minimal on salivary cortisol changes in top-level soccer adapted to this type of stress . Other studies have shown increase in cortisol after both strenuous 14 and nonstrenous competitive games .Psychological, but not physiological, component of the competition is thought to be responsible for the increment in cortisol response. Elloumi et al. (2003) showed that cortisol levels were significantly raised after a rugby match, but conversely, when the competition environment was removed by simulating similar physiology strenuous activity in the laboratory, cortisol levels did not raise to the same magnitude . The authors affirmed that this observation highlights the fact that the results obtained under laboratory conditions, even if exhausting, are not comparable to competitive situations that create a higher physiological and psychological demand. Doan et al. (2007) reported significant increases for salivary cortisol to 36 continuous holes of competitive golf in male collegiate golfers . Some investigators report golf to require physical exertion of only 35–41% of VO2max  . Therefore, any elevation in cortisol during golf performance may be presumed to be the result of psychological stress due competitive component.
In conclusion, this study indicates that competition seem to increment salivary cortisol. It may be reasonable consider that female volleyball players are very well adapted for this type of stress. The data indicate also the fatigue and tension scores of POMS increased significantly after competition compared with PRE. Results demonstrated that competitive stress affected hormonal status in female volleyball players. These findings suggest that hormonal changes reflect physical and mental stress during competition. Future research about the impact of steress competition in female volleyball players could be considered.
ConclusionsIt is concluded that the salivary cortisol level was increased in female volleyball players during in the competitions. Perhaps this is one of the reasons for why the important tournaments are scheduled out of the off seasons, in which the catabolic hormonal activities are at highest level.
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