Usage of the index of physical efficiency in the physical education and sport
ABSTRACTIn 1982 dr. K. Zuchora from the Academy of Physical Education in Warsaw created the Index of Physical Efficiency (IPE) ordered by the School Sport Association. Method. The problemme is usage of the IPE in the physical education and sport. The observation was conducted during 5 years experience in Secondary School (Strzyzow town) and 17 years in the Idokan Poland Association (IPA) in Rzeszow and Strzyzow. In this period of time a no. of tested pupils was N = 500. Test was repeated in each semester. The IPE test gives us a knowledge on cyclical performing.
Results. Although the IPE is not suitable for a comparative study in all tests, the IPA uses it to check the levels of training. A detailed monitoring of efficiency is used from January 2007. The best athletes receive excellent results (6 points) in all tests. In the last test in March 2010 62,5% of systematically exercised people received results from 31 to 36 points, which is excellent for the particular age groups. Amongst them are all the athletes of jujitsu, representatives of IPA. This Index allows the assessment of physical efficiency in a gymnasium within 45 minutes of the lesson.
Introduction - tests of physical efficiencyThe International Test of Physical Efficiency (Larson, 1969) and EUROFIT (1991) are at present the most popular tests of physical efficiency. Quite often the efficiency of children and youths (Trzesniowski, 1990; Litwiniuk, Cynarski, 2005; Saczuk et al., 2007) and the efficiency of athletes (Talaga, 2004; Ozimek, 2007) is checked in this way. The Polish scientists had a large contribution in the creation of the research tools to assess the level of efficiency.
The first Polish publication of S. Pilicz (1969) titled “O probie standaryzacji testow sprawnosci fizycznej” and some other (Pilicz, 1971; Trzesniowski, Pilicz, 1989; Pilicz, Przeweda, Trzesniowski, 1993) served the Polish adaptation and application of the International Test of Physical Efficiency. But the first measure of the physical efficiency developed by Polish anthropologist Jan Mydlarski in 1933. His measurements comprised of a run of 60 meters, a high jump and a throw a baseball. Mydlarski thought that in this way he could measure coordination. His physical results were created in the form of tables considering the age, height and weight of a student (Zuchora, 2009). In 1960 Roman Trzesniowski slightly modified Mydlarski’s measure. Krzysztof Zuchora referred to the creation of a simple research tool for physical efficiency creating his own index.
Area of study - Index of Physical Efficiency of K. ZuchoraIn 1982 a doctor Krzysztof Zuchora from the Academy of Physical Education in Warsaw created the Index of Physical Efficiency (IPE) of K. Zuchora ordered by the School Sport Association. The minimum physical efficiency was set at the level which is easily achievable for 90 % of Polish people between the ages of 6 to 71. It means that they could easily achieve the appropriate levels. The next level regarded 80 % of people who should be able to cope with the physical demands. This is the satisfactory level. The efficiency on the second level requires for example the result of a standing jump of 7 ft what is achievable for 60 % of the population. A jump distance of 8 feet is more difficult and is achievable for about 40 % of the population. This level allows active free time and good shape and health (Zuchora, 2009). The higher levels cover between 10 and 20 % of the population which means the efficiency of the sports elite. The points from 1 to 6 correspond to the scale of assessments.
Thanks to the used norms we can compare the results of an adult with a grandparent or a grandson. Krzysztof Zuchora, the creator of the Index of Physical Efficiency says: “the test I created allows us to assess the level of physical efficiency of all members of a family as the suggested exercises can be performed by anyone from 6 years till old age. I also encourage disable people, remember we all are equally fit, we only have different abilities (this is why not everybody has to do all the tests). Of course in this case before you do exercise, you must consult your doctor, it applies also to older people or people with cardiovascular diseases. All the exercises are created in the way to encourage all muscle groups.Everyone should have an equal chance regardless the height and weight. This is why we measure the results using our own feet. The main benefit of this test is that it allows us to measure the ability of adults and children. The minimum note was created in the way that it can be achievable by 90 % of the population in the ages between 6 and 70. In Poland: the satisfactory rating of this test achieves 80 %, with a good rating - 60%, with a very good-40 %, with a high rating - 20 % and with an excellent rating - 10 % (Olympians and sport champions). I estimated that the level of 6 year olds is the same level as 70 a year old person. The most fit are the people in the age group between 19 and 25. My test serves as self-assessment. This is why you should check to which group you belong. If you are not satisfied with your result, you can do it every day and you will see an improvement after a week (remember that at the beginning the progress will be more noticeable then after a month of regular exercises)” (Zuchora, 2007). This Index allows the assessment of physical efficiency in a gymnasium within 45 minutes of the lesson.
Results - ISF in researches, own experienceIn the 1980s the first authors realized a self-control of own achievements of efficiency using IPE. It was used for martial arts. In the years between 1993 till 1998 IPE was used as a tool for work with children of Zespol Szkol and Liceum Ogolnoksztalcace (Secondary School) in Strzyzow. The youths were using this measure during physical education which was encouraging the students to improve their physical efficiency. The students knew that on the day of the test they did not have to necessarily receive better results but it was enough to improve on a previous term.
The Association of Idokan Poland in Rzeszow and Strzyzow also has been performing cyclical tests of IPE for the last 17 years. The youths practice jujitsu and karate there. A training of martial arts of the Asian origin is realized in a holistic way, a teaching programme is not limited to the ability of combat. It aims are an adaptation of the competence of health, physical education, ethical principles etc. (compare: Kiyota, Kinoshita, 1990; Cynarski, Sieber, 2006; Obodynski, Cieszkowski, 2007).
Discussion, and conclusionsThe importance of physical efficiency in martial arts and combat sports is interesting for many researchers. They examine the profiles of efficiency of people practising jujitsu (Sterkowicz, Ambrozy, 1992; Ambrozy, Miklaszewski, 2001), judo and aikido (Litwiniuk, Daniluk, Cynarski, 2005; Litwiniuk, Cynarski, 2006) and martial arts and combat sports (Douris et al., 2004; Litwiniuk, Daniluk, Cynarski, 2006). Unfortunately the IPE is used not often enough because of the application of the measures (for example the length of ones own foot). Although the ISF is not suitable for a comparative study in all tests, the Idokan Poland Association (IPA) uses it to check the levels of training.
A detailed monitoring of efficiency is used from January 2007. The best athletes receive excellent results (6 points) in all tests. In the last test in March 2010 62,5% of systematically exercised people received results from 31 to 36 points, which is excellent for the particular age groups. Amongst them are all the athletes of jujitsu, representatives of IPA. The author’s hope that this English translation of IPE will enable a greater use of the international scale, both in the research of martial arts and in school didactics of physical education.
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