Objective: To identify physiological predictors of rock climbing performance in a homogenous group of elite sport climbers. Methods: Eight males and 8 females elite sport climbers aged 29.9 years (±4.5) with a personal best ascent without preview or fall (hereafter called onsight) ranging from 6c to 8c, participated in the study. Best onsight performance was assed using a validated questionnaire. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to quantify body fat percentage. Upper body muscular strength was measured with a standardized handgrip strength test, and lower body muscular strength was measured with squat jump, countermovement jump. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 climb-peak) was measured in a maximal indoor vertical treadmill test using a portable gas analyzer. Time to exhaustion was also recorded. Flexibility was measured through the sit and reach test. Results: Best onsight performance was significantly associated with body fat percentage (r = -0.71), handgrip strength (r = 0.73) and time to exhaustion (r = 0.738) (all P = 0.001). Best onsight performance was not associated with VO2 climb-peak (r=0.23), sit and reach (r=-0.22), or squat jump (r=0.4) and countermovement jump (r=0.35) (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Lower body fat percentage, higher handgrip strength and longer time to exhaustion in indoor vertical treadmill are associated with rock climbing performance. These results should be taken into account when programming training regimens focused on climbing performance. Given that rock climbing is usually part of alpinism, the importance of oxygen uptake when climbing in high altitude should be clarified.