Pe integration – case study of child in inclusive pe lessons (Children with celebral palsy)
One of the important topics of the APA domain is integration in school setting. A majority of published research studies covers teachers’ and peers’ attitudes toward the included children. Real situation in inclusion of student with disability into regular PE lessons is not developed. So, we can assess the quality of inclusive PE lessons (from the aspect both inclusive child and the schoolmates).
We need to know how many time (minutes, seconds) students spend in real time in inclusive, parallel or separated activities during 45 minutes in PE lesson. The process of inclusive PE lessons is influenced with many determinants: the age, diagnoses of child and the content of lesson seem to be very important (Obrusníková et al., 2003, Meek 2000; Dinold and Valkova, 2004). Recorded time in observed categories was: inclusive – ALT = 34 %; inclusive without modification – I-M = 36, 8 %; inclusive with modification – I+M = 5, 5 %. Different time in the categories was found. The purpose of the study is analyzed and compares two lessons, which presented very diverse results. Special attention was paid to external conditions (environment, content of inclusive PE lesson, number of children, assistant support) and internal conditions (child diagnoses).
Evidence has supported on many occasions the fact that physical activity and physical education are important for children with disability. (Block, 2000; Van Coppenolle, De Potter, Van Peteghem, Djobova and Wijns, 2004; Sherrill, 1998; Jowsey, 1992). Winnick (2000) argues that physical education should be meeting the needs of all students, preparing them for an active lifestyle, and empowering them to participate in physical activities throughout their life span. Sport and physical activity are important for each person. For people with disability it means much more than only improving their physical condition, but the physical activity gives the possibility to participate, improve quality of life, and give a joyful experience and socialization. This applies particularly to children with disability. Problems encountered in sport by people with disability gave rise to the world special discipline Adapted Physical Activity (Barto?ová, 2007).
Physical Education can be a very strong factor in influencing the success or failure of inclusion. Recent attention is paid to school integration but mostly with orientation on academic education. In spite of the fact, inclusion of children or students with special needs is step by step growing (Dinold and Valkova, 2004). According to Sherrill (1998) the best approach to designing successful inclusion is creating physical activity environments that respect diversity and encourage individual improvement. Research has shown that the attitudes of teachers are one of most crucial determinants in inclusion of children with disability into general physical education. Attitudes, behaviour, knowledge and skills about overcoming obstacles of inclusion are narrowly interconnected.
In research reality the most studies about inclusion are oriented on PE teachers attitudes or school-mates attitudes. Real situation in inclusion of student with disability into regular PE lessons is not very well developed and supported with research findings (Block and Obrusnikova, 2007). Evidence based data are missing: how many times of PE lessons students spend in real inclusive, parallel or special setting. Basic question is – even students are located in the same PE lessons, are they really included in inclusive movement, exercises? Are they really communicated? Characteristics of participation in PE lessons can, hypothetically, influence the attitudes, motivation to participate, meaningful involvement in PE class atmosphere. (Halamickova and Valkova, 2003; Meek, 2000; Obrusníková, Válková and Block, 2003.)
So that we can assess the quality of inclusive PE lessons (from the aspect both inclusive child and the schoolmates) we need to know how many time (minutes, seconds) students spend in real time in inclusive, parallel or separated activities during 45 minutes in PE lesson. The process of inclusive PE lessons is influenced with many determinants: the age, diagnoses of child and the content of lesson seem to be very important. The purpose of the study is to assess the quality of inclusive PE lessons (from the aspect both inclusive child and the school- mates). The main objective is to compare PE inclusive lesson of students with different individual physical disabilities and confront the children in basic categories, which are inclusive, parallel or separate.
Data collection: observation of real process in PE lessons was the principle of assessment. Categorical scale used in inclusive PE lessons was based on Critical Incident Technique (Flanagan, 1954). Observation is followed with categorical scaling combined with chronometry. This principle was transformed for education (so called didactic) environment (Piéron and Cheffers, 1973). The team from Palacký University in Olomouc finalized the didactic categories description, verification, training of observers. (Ahmetasevic, Bartonova and Valkova, 2010; Halami?ková and Válková, 2003).
The instrument of inclusive lessons assessment is called DIC-CIT (Didactic inclusive categories – Critical Incident Techniques). The categories are: inclusive (Academic Learning Time – ALT, activity with or without modification), parallel, separated. First version of verification the DIC-CIT instrument showed 91,00 % of congruency between two independent trained observers (Valkova, Ahmetasevic and Bartonova, 2010). The observe time in each category was counted in percents. Process: three different inclusive PE lessons with three different included students with cerebral palsy (CP) were selected from the amount of other observed lessons. The reason was to analyze those lessons with very different time of observed didactic categories and to document conditions influencing inclusive process. Data processing: case studies design was processed on logical analyses for categories description and explanation was used in case studies evaluation.
Results and discussion
The assed inclusive lessons were realized in different cities in Czech Republic with different teachers (male). The time of lessons was 45 minutes. The supposed environmental conditions influence the time spending in integrative category with or without modification even in parallel exercising. First of all it is the typical limits in mobility (ambulants or wheelchair user). The content of PE lecture and the goal of the lecture like repetition or games versus motor learning of new games) seem to be other crucial predictors related to inclusive time (ALT, activity with or without modification).
Different role of the teacher-assistant was found as well. The similar results were find in analyses of inclusive PE lessons at secondary school level (Válková and Kudlá?ek, 2009). Findings presented in Table 1 show the high percentage of parallel exercising in inclusive lesson with wheelchair boy, high (good) percent of integrative category in lesson with support of teacher assistant. High percent (from 27 % to 37 %) of time from 45 minutes is devoted to teacher´s talking which seems to be too much. Unfortunately we have no relevant information so that we can compare general PE lessons. Halamickova and Valkova (2003) presented 17 % of ICE[ALT] didactic category in inclusive PE lessons with CP girls at elementary school. Lessons were focused on typical children games. The less percent of ICE[ALT] is documented in lessons with wheelchair user when there is strong parallel and not typically inclusive exercising. This interesting finding should be analyzed in future.
Table . Pe integration – case study of child in inclusive pe lessons (Children with celebral palsy)
Related to results according reality and exact data from inclusive PE lessons we can proclaim that PE/APA teachers and teacher assistant has to be educated in cooperation during lectures. They should perceive available inclusive or parallel category relevant to the goal of PE lesson and select the best teaching approaches.
Exact data of three inclusive PE lectures according real inclusive and parallel exercising were presented. The internal (included child mobility limits) as so as external factors (the content and the goal of the lecture, personality of the teacher, teacher´s assistant) can influence the percents in time spending in inclusive or parallel communication. The percents of ICE[ALT] didactic category (talking, no exercising) seems to be very high. The findings should be systematically investigated. Teachers training and teacher´s assistants education in inclusive PE seems to be necessary.
Table 1. Comparison of three inclusive PE lessons from aspect of time of didactic categories (in percents)
Table 1. Pe integration – case study of child in inclusive pe lessons (Children with celebral palsy)
Legend – didactic categories:
ICE [ALT] Integrative – Cognitive-Emotional. Academic learning time. Student are together, listening the teacher who explains, informs, evaluates. No exercising, passive time.
I-M Integrative, motor/movement active, without modification (minus) of student or class.
I+M Integrative, motor/movement active, with modification (plus) of student or class.
I-As Integrative, modification with support of teacher assistant.
Pex Parallel, different activity in the class, extra exercises (more intensive) with school-mate.
STO Separate, Time-Out, student decides to take break.
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