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27 sep 2011

An examination of turkish high school students physical activity participation with regard to gender, grade level and parents level of education

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The aim of this study was to examine the duration of moderate and vigorous physical activity by Turkish high school students. Their participation in physical activity is analysed for gender, grade level and parents’ level of education.


Autor(es):
Ayda Karaca, Gokce Erturan Ilker
Entidades(es): Hacettepe University, School of Sport Sciences and Technology
Congreso: VII CONGRESO DE LA ASOCIACIÓN INTERNACIONAL DE ESCUELAS SUPERIORES DE EDUCACIÓN FÍSICA (AIESEP)
A Coruña, 26-29 de Octubre de 2010
ISBN: 978-84-614-9946-5
Palabras claves: Physical activity, students,  gender, grade, parents’ level of education

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine the duration of moderate and vigorous physical activity by Turkish high school students. Their participation in physical activity is analysed for gender, grade level and parents’ level of education. The study subjects were 1156 students (571 girls, 585 boys) enrolled in 9th, 10th and 11th grades ( X age=15.61, SD=0.98). Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire (PAAQ) and demographic information sheet were administered to the students by self-report method in 2008.  Results showed that the total duration of the students’ moderate-vigorous levels of physical activity was found to be significantly different with regard to gender, grade level and mothers’ level of education. Gender and grade level made a significant difference in the numbers of students who participated in 7 or more hours of moderate-vigorous physical activity.  Due to the fact that Turkish high school students’ average duration of moderate-vigorous physical activity was lower than the recommended level, physical education teachers and parents are advised to motivate high school students to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity.
Keywords: Physical activity, students,  gender, grade, parents’ level of education

AN EXAMINATION OF TURKISH HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION WITH REGARD TO GENDER, GRADE LEVEL AND PARENTS’ LEVEL OF EDUCATION

Introduction

Regular physical activity (PA) provides adolescents with important physical, mental, and social health benefits (Park and Kim 2008; Van der Horst et al., 2007). Adolescents are recommended to engage in moderate-vigorous levels of physical activity (MVPA) at least 1 hour a day for a healthy life (Hager, 2006). The recommended 60 minutes or more of PA can be achieved in a cumulative manner in school during physical education class, recess, intramural sports, before and after school programs (Strong et al., 2005). Some studies emphasize a decline in MVPA in both genders during adolescence in spite of the benefits of PA (Maximova et al., 2009; Nader et al., 2008; Park and Kim 2008; Van der Horst et al., 2007). This decline might be affected by the culture (Malina, 2006).
An intervention plan to increase PA levels in Turkish adolescents requires research among the Turkish population. Although there has been some research examining Turkish high school students’ participation in sports, there has been limited research on their overall MVPA. Therefore, this study examines the duration of Turkish high school students’ participation in MVPA such as climbing stairs, bicycling, walking, housework, physical education lessons and sports with regard to gender, grade level and parents’level of education.

Methodology

Totally 1156 students (571 girls, 585 boys) in 9th, 10th and 11th grades ( X age=15.61, SD=0.98) participated in this study. Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire (PAAQ) (Karaca et al., 2000) and demographic information sheet were administered to the students by self-report method. Data were collected in Ankara, Turkey during the fall semester of 2008.
The term “moderate-vigorous physical activity” refers to the combined time of walking, bicycling, climbing stairs, doing housework, participating in sports and physical education class which required energy to consume 3 MET and above per hour. Each activity was assigned an intensity value (metabolic expenditure units-METs) based on the work of Ainsworth et al. (2000). The obtained data were evaluated according to gender, grade and parents’ level of education. The differences in duration of moderate-vigorous levels of physical activity (hours per week) for each variable were tested by using independent samples t-test for gender, and One-way ANOVA for grade level and parents’ level of education.  Total duration of moderate-vigorous levels of physical activity was calculated for week (hours per week). The total score means of students who participate in moderate-vigorous levels of physical activity less than 7 hours and more than 7 hours per week were compared with independent samples t-test considering gender, grade level and parents’level ofeducation.

Results

The average duration of the students’ moderate-vigorous physical activity was 6.55±5.96 hours per week.

Table 1. Descriptive statistics of duration of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activities with regard to gender and independent samples t-test results

*p<0.05Contenido disponible en el CD Colección Congresos nº 16

 

Total duration of student participation in moderate-vigorous levels of physical activity  was found to be significantly different with regard to gender (p<.05). Boys were found to spend more time engaged in moderate-vigorous levels of physical activity than girls.  Boys more frequently participated in 7 or more hours of physical activity per week than did girls (p<.05).
 

Table 2. Descriptive statistics of duration of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activities with regard to grade and ANOVA results*p<0.05 

Contenido disponible en el CD Colección Congresos nº 16

 

Total duration of the students’ moderate-vigorous levels of physical activity was found to differ significantly with regard to grade level (p<.05).
Grade level is a significant variable when considering children who participate moderate-vigorous levels of physical activity for less than 7 hours (p<.05).
Ninth graders participate longer in moderate-vigorous physical activities. Grade level is also significant for those children who exercise moderately to vigorously for 7 or more hours per week (p<.05).

strong>Table 3.Descriptive statistics of duration of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activities with regard to mothers’ level of education and ANOVA results

Contenido disponible en el CD Colección Congresos nº 16

 

Total duration of student engagement in moderate-vigorous levels of physical activity was found to be significantly different with regard to their mothers’ level of education (p<.05). Adolescents whose mothers had only a primary school education participated for more hours in moderate-vigorous levels of physical activity than those adolescents raised by better educated mothers.

Table 4. Descriptive statistics of duration of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activities with regard to fathers’ level of education and ANOVA results

Contenido disponible en el CD Colección Congresos nº 16

No significant differences were detected in students’ physical activity levels with regard to fathers’ level of education.

Conclusion

Thepurpose of this study was to examinethe duration of MVPA of Turkish high school students. Due to the finding that about 2/3 of both genders were participating below the recommended levels of MVPA, the percentage of those engaging in less than the recommended MVPA (>7 hours per week) can be considered as low in both genders (31.12% in girls; 38.82% in boys). This finding is in line with an earlier study, reported by the CDC in 2006, in which only 35.8 % of adolescents 14 through 18 years of age met physical activity guidelines (Cited in Wenthe et al., 2006).. As is consistent with previous studies (Nader et al., 2008; Silva et al., 2010; Van der Horst et al., 2007; Wenthe et al., 2006), Turkish boys engaged in MVPA for greater durations than girls (p<0.05).
Consistent with previous studies (Nader et al., 2008),, the MVPA percentages (>7 hours per week) of high school students can be considered as low with regard to grade level. MVPA percentage was found higher among 9th graders students than the 10th and 11th grades.
In their systematic review (Van der Horst et al., 2007) association between PA and parental education was inconclusive. In the present study, association was found between only mothers’ level of education and children’s MVPA.
Due to the phenomenon of Turkish high school students’ percentage of average duration of MVPA being lower than the recommended level, physical education teachers and parents are advised to motivate high school students to increase their moderate-vigorous physical activity.

References

Ainsworth, B.E., Haskell, W.L., Whitt, M.C., Irwin, M.L., Swartz, A.M., Strath, S.J.,           O’Brien, W.L., Bassett, D.R.JR, Schmitz, K.H., Emplaincourt, P.O., Jacobs, D.R., &            Leon, A.S. (2000): Compendium of physical activities:an update of activity codes and     MET intensities.Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 32(9): S498-S-516.

Hager, R.L. (2006): Television viewing and physical activity in children. JournalofAdolescent Health, 39: 656-661.

Karaca A, Ergen E, Koruç Z. , (2000):  Fiziksel aktivite değerlendirme anketi (FADA) güvenirlik ve geçerlik çalışması [The reliability and validity of Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire]. Hacettepe Journal of  Sport Science, 23: 17-28.

Malina, R.M. (2006): Youth physical activity in different cultural contexts. 24th International Council for Physical Activity and Fitness Research Symposium, 9-11 September, Wroclaw, Polland.

Maximova, K., O’Loughlin, J., Paradis, G., Hanley, J.A., Lynch, J. (2009): Declines in physical activity and higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence. American Journal of Epidemiology., 170 (9): 1084-1094.

Nader, P.R., Bradley, R.H., Houts, R.M., McRitchie, S.L., O’Brien, M. (2008): Moderate-to-Vigorous physical activity from ages 9 to 15 years. JAMA. 300 (3): 295-305.

Park, H. and Kim, N. (2008): Predicting factors of physical activity in adolescents: A systematic Review. Asian Nursing Research. 2(2): 113-128.

Silva, P., Aznar, S., Aires, L., Generelo, E., Zaragoza, J., Mota, J. (2010): Differences in the physical activity pattern between Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease, 1(1): 26-31. 

Strong, W.B., Malina, R.M.,  Blimkie, C.J.R., Daniels, S., Dishman, R.K., Gutin, B., Hergenroeder, A.C., Must, A., Nixon, P.A., Pivarnik, J.M., Rowland, T., Trost, S., and Trudeau, F. (2005): Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. Journal of Pediatrics, 146: 732-737.

Van der Horst, K., Chin a Paw, M.J., Twisk, J.W.R., van Mechelen, W. (2007): A brief review on correlates of physical activity and sedentariness in youth. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 39 (8): 1241-1250.

Venthe, P.J., Janz, K.F., Levy, S.M. (2009): Gender similarities and differences in factors associated with adolescent moderate-vigorous physical activity. Pediatric Exercise Science, 21(3):291-304.

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