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12 abr 2012

Factors Affecting Japanese Elementary School Teachers’ Commitment to Teaching Physical Education.

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The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting elementary school teachers’ commitment to teaching Physical Education. Qualitative data were collected from semi-structured interviews of 12 elementary school teachers participated in a long-term training program at a university. Data were analyzed using Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA).

Autor(es):Yomoda, Kenji; Sukou,Riki; Ogiwara,Tomoko; Hamagami,Yohei; Hasegawa,Etsushi; Miki; Hiromi; Miyazaki, Akiyo; Okade, Yoshinori
Entidades(es):University of Tsukuba
Congreso: congreso de la asociación internacional de escuelas superiores de educación física (AIESEP)
Úbeda A Coruña, 26-29 de Octubre de 2010
ISBN: 9788461499465
Palabras claves:teachers’ commitment

Factors Affecting Japanese Elementary School Teachers’ Commitment to Teaching Physical Education.

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting elementary school teachers’ commitment to teaching Physical Education. Qualitative data were collected from semi-structured interviews of 12 elementary school teachers participated in a long-term training program at a university. Data were analyzed using Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA). Notable findings of this study were 1) expectations by colleagues enhance teachers’ professional motivation, 2) colleagues could affect as enhancer and inhibitor for teachers’ commitment, 3) all subjects stated students’ response could enhance teachers’ commitment; 4) perception of educational value is the key function to enhance teachers’ commitment. These results suggested that formation of supportive and collaborative teacher community and development of teachers’ fundamental teaching skills would be necessary to incline high-value perception of PE and efficacy which enhance teachers’ commitment to teaching PE.

INTRODUCTION

These days, much more accountability should be required to improve learning outcomes of physical education in Japan. It is an urgent task to improve Japanese elementary school teachers’ ability to teach physical education. Recent studies have revealed that teachers’ commitment to teaching plays important roles to improve students’ outcomes (Firestone and Pennell, 1993; Park, 2002; Steen, 1988). Other studies suggested that external factors such as colleagues and school contexts and internal factors such as teachers’ belief and teacher efficacy affect teachers’ commitment (Kwakman, 2003).

Also in studies of elementary school teachers’ development in teaching physical education, Morgan (2008) reported that teachers’ low value perception to teaching physical education decline quality of physical education classes. While, Morgan and Hansen (2007) indicated that inadequate content knowledge, time, and facilities inhibit teachers’ activities for development their teaching abilities. In Japan, Suzuki (2007) reported inadequate learning opportunities caused low confidence to teaching physical education of elementary school teachers.

However, little is known about the factors affecting teachers’ commitment to teaching physical education. Besides, these studies have conducted using questioners and quantitative analysis, so the factors affecting teachers’ commitment are not suggested. Therefore, exploratory research should be conducted to examine how Japanese elementary school teachers are working on physical education. The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting Japanese elementary school teachers’ commitment to teaching physical education.

METHODOLOGY

Data analysisz/ Qualitative data were collected from semi-structured interviews of 12 elementary school teachers participated in a long-term training program at a university. Table 1 shows features of the teachers. They are 10 male teachers and 2 female teachers and 8 of the teachers have PE teaching licenses. Average teaching years of them are 16.2 years. They were selected by purposeful sampling (Patton, 1990). We chose teachers who have professional motivation to teaching PE and voluntary participated to a long–term training program. Besides, subjects and the author have conducted study and research together in the university, so trustful information might be extract. Individual interviews took 70 minutes in average.

Table 1. Features of subjects

Table 1. Factors Affecting Japanese Elementary School Teachers’ Commitment to Teaching Physical Education.

Contenido disponible en el CD Colección Congresos nº 16

 

List of Interview content The concepts of the interviews were how they had promoted their commitment to teaching physical education. The interviews were recorded and subsequently transcribed for analysis. 1) What are your school duties? 2) What are the meanings for you to experience head of PE? 3) Do you have confidence to make children fan during PE classes? 4) Do you have confidence to improve children’s performance? 5) When did you feel interested in PE? 6) What was the reason to participate in the training program? 7) When do you feel confidence to teaching PE? 8) When do you feel fall of confidence to teaching PE? 9) When do you feel satisfaction to teaching PE? 10) How do you collect information about planning PE classes? 11) What are the difficulties to teaching PE?

Data analysis

Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA, Kinoshita, 2003) was used to analyze the data focusing on what affects on teachers’ commitment to physical education. First, open coding was conducted to conceptualize and define categories. The author had read the data closely and coded the parts related to the research theme. Second, the author compared notations and theme categories, focusing primarily on the similarities and differences.

Third, categories were refined by making associative connections and the concept map was illustrated. The final step was to verify the themes by a reexamination of each transcript. To make the text data visible, qualitative data analysis software, NVivo 8 (QSR International), was used. This software could help operations of the analysis and looking over the analyzed data. Besides, following techniques were used to establish trustworthiness. First, peer debriefing was conducted by the author and a researcher of sport pedagogy. Second, member checking was used. The participants were asked to read the interpretations of the data and to correct any disagreements.

RESULTS

Table 2 describes categories, themes and definition and Table 3.shows typical examples of each themes teachers commented. Concept map (Fig 1.) illustrates the overview of the results.

Table 2. List of categories, themes and definition (a) Enhancing factors

Table 2a. Factors Affecting Japanese Elementary School Teachers’ Commitment to Teaching Physical Education.

Contenido disponible en el CD Colección Congresos nº 16

 

(b) Inhibiting factors

Table 2b. Factors Affecting Japanese Elementary School Teachers’ Commitment to Teaching Physical Education.

Contenido disponible en el CD Colección Congresos nº 16

 

Table 3. Typical examples of each themes (a) Enhancing factors

Table 3a. Factors Affecting Japanese Elementary School Teachers’ Commitment to Teaching Physical Education.

Contenido disponible en el CD Colección Congresos nº 16

 

(b) Inhibiting factors

Table 3b. Factors Affecting Japanese Elementary School Teachers’ Commitment to Teaching Physical Education.

Contenido disponible en el CD Colección Congresos nº 16

 

Figure 1. Factors Affecting Japanese Elementary School Teachers’ Commitment to Teaching Physical Education.

Contenido disponible en el CD Colección Congresos nº 16

 

Figure 1. concept map

DISCUSSION

The factors indicated in this study supported the past studies in other countries notified that colleagues’ support enhances commitment and inadequate learning opportunities due to lack of time lead to low confidence to teach and low-value perception of subjects.

Thus, notable findings of this study were bellow.

1) Expectations by colleagues enhance teachers’ professional motivation.

2) Colleagues could affect as enhancer and inhibitor for teachers’ commitment.

3) All subjects stated students’ response could enhance teachers’ commitment.

4) Perception of educational value is the key function to enhance teachers’ commitment.

Function of role expectation suggests that taking roles and responsibility for PE in schools could enhance teachers’ commitment to PE. While supportive colleagues enhance commitment, colleagues’ negative perception of PE inhibit teachers learning motivation. Therefore, school managers and head of PE should support teachers to realize educational value of PE and make collaborative teachers community which share school goals of PE. Besides, in order to ensure teachers’ positive teaching experiences, teachers should be developed fundamental teaching skills.

1) Consideration for generalizability due to limited sample size and bias This study examined small amount of subjects and they were highly motivated to teaching physical education. Therefore, we should careful consideration to adapt these results to other teachers who don’t have special motivations to teaching physical education. Besides, we couldn’t collect enough data about inhibiting factors because of the feature of subjects.

2) How do teachers incline or decline commitment in teachers’ community within school contexts? While the results suggested collaborative community enhances teachers’ professional commitment, little is known about how teachers develop their teaching ability within school contexts. Therefore, field based studies focus on teacher community would help more understanding of elementary school teachers’ professional development.

CONCLUSIONS

This study examined factors affecting elementary school teachers’ commitment to teaching PE. The qualitative data collected from interviews of elementary school teachers were analyzed using M-GTA. The notable findings of this study were

1) expectations by colleagues enhance teachers’ professional motivation,

2) colleagues could affect as enhancer and inhibitor for teachers’ commitment,

3) all subjects stated students’ response could enhance teachers’ commitment,

4) perception of educational value is the key function to enhance teachers’ commitment.

These results suggested that formation of supportive and collaborative teacher community and development of teachers’ fundamental teaching skills would incline high-value perception of PE and efficacy which enhance teachers’ commitment to teaching PE. This study contributed to the understanding of how Japanese elementary school teachers change their commitment to teaching PE.

REFERENCES

Firestone, W. A. and Pennell, J. R. (1993): Teacher commitment, working conditions, and differential incentive policies. Review of Educational Research, 63 (4): 489-525.

Kinoshita, Y. (1967): Grounded theory approach no jissen (in Japanese) [Practice of grounded theory approach]. Tokyo: Koubundou.

Kwakman, K. (2003): Factors affecting teachers’ participation in professional learning activities. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19(2): 149-170.

Morgan, P. J. (2008): Teacher perceptions of physical education in the primary school: Attitudes, values and curriculum preferences. The Physical Educator, 65(1): 46-56.

Morgan, P. J. and Hansen, V. (2007): Recommendations to improve primary school physical education: Classroom teachers’ perspective. The Journal of Educational Research, 101(2): 99-112.

Park, I. (2002): Teacher commitment and its effects on student achievement in American high schools. Educational Research and Evaluation, 11 (5): 461-485.

Patton, M. Q. (1990): Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). CA Sage: Newbury.

Steen, S. B. (1988): Looking for commitment to teaching: Suggestions for teacher education. Quest, 40 (1): 74- 83.

Suzuki, N. (2007): A report about the present conditions of teacher’s effort and the actual conditions of the method toward improving lessons in physical education: aiming at a better physical education lessons qualitatively. Journal of Faculty of Education, Saitama University, 56(1): 233- 244

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