Training and competition of futsal in school sport (Lisbon)
The study purpose was to characterize training and competition of futsal. Regarding the teams, there is a decreasing trend between players registered in the beginning of the term, players during the school term, players present in most training sessions and players that were at the observed training sessions, in this order. As for the percentage of drop out players, it was found a high diversity in the teams. Concerning players who are both registered in the Portuguese Soccer Federation and in the school sport, significant differences were found between public and private schools, however the relationship between the number of such players and the results in the school tournament was not significant. Despite the previous result, data indicate a better classification for those teams which have a higher number of players registered in the Portuguese Soccer Federation. As for the training process, it was found a high diversity in the number of sessions, its duration and its weekly timetable amongst the schools, being the effective volume of training during the week considerably insufficient. Competition is characterized by a small number of games and it is organized and scheduled in a manner which is different from the opinion of known authors.
Currently, it looks to be accepted, independently of the context in which they are implemented, the processes of training and competition in sport, when organized, supported and guided correctly, are an important factor in education and development of our youth. However, it also looks to be accepted that, the current state of sport in Portuguese schools, is not the most desired from the institutional, organizational and methological point of view, and, therefore, it is the Portuguese Government through Ministery of Education (2003, p.7) that comes to confirm it, by recognizing that “the situation founded on school` sport, for many reasons, is not satisfying the various actors involved in process.” This progressive degradation of the image of sport in Portuguese schools has been reflected in the participation of young students in sport at the school context in that, the participation rate for the year 2001/2002 was only 13.8% considering the total target population.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was, on one hand, to characterize the conception, the process of training and competition of young players in schools in sport of futsal and, on the other hand, to be aware about teacher`s perceptions of the school teams and level of satisfaction of the players. Thus, in order to answer important questions in this line of research, were defined three main objectives: to characterize the legal framework, conceptual and organizational governing the activities of school` sport; to characterize the process of training and competition in sport of futsal in Portuguese schools, in particular, its organization, its planning and periodization and its concrete reality in the schools studied; to know the conceptions and perceptions of the teachers in school context about the process of training and competition in Portuguese schools and to know students’ perceptions regarding the process of training and competition, by assessing their degree of satisfaction.
METHODS AND SAMPLE
Data were collected by means of direct observation of the process of training and competition, structured interview to the teachers and a questionnaire of satisfaction in sport applied to the players (satisfaction scale in sports). The sample was constituted by 18 schools randomly selected in the educative area of Lisbon that promote the sport of futsal (9 schools with male futsal players with ages between 15 – 16 yo (JV) and 9 schools with male futsal players with ages ? 17 yo (JN)).
The results were released into a database and analyzed using the SPSS v.15. It was chosen nonparametric statistical techniques because of the small sample. For comparative analysis it was used the U test of Mann- Whitney (two independent groups), the Kruskal-Wallis (more than two independent samples) and Wilcoxon test (two dependent or paired samples). For correlational analysis, it was used the Spearman correlation test. Results were considered significant for the significance level of less than 0.05 (* pRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONFirstly, the results of this study suggest a lack of teachers with high specific qualifications in soccer and/or futsal. Regarding the teams, significant differences were found between the number of players registered in the beginning of the term and the number of players during the school term (W-Z =-3.07, p=0.002). As for the percentage of drop out players (table 1), it was found a high diversity in the school teams, being significant the differences between public and private schools (MW-Z =-2.13, p=0.033). Moreover, for the percentage of dropouts players, this proved to be significantly different in statistical terms (MW-Z =- 2.13, p = 0.033) between the public and private schools.
Table 1. Percentage of drop out players in the school teams
Table 1. Training and competition of futsal in school sport (Lisbon)
How can be observed on graph 1, there is a decreasing trend between the median number of players registered in the beginning of the term (PRBT), the median number of players in the teams during the school term (PDST), the median number of players present in most training sessions (PPMTS) and the median number of players that were at the observed training sessions (POTS), in this order. Consequently, between the number of players registered in the beginning of the term and the number of players that participates regularly in school`s sport activities of futsal may be a big difference.
Graph 1: Variables on the number of players at futsal in school context
Concerning players who are simultaneously registered in the Portuguese Soccer Federation and in the school sport (table 2), significant differences were found between public and private schools (MW-Z=- 2.34, p=0.019). However, the relationship between the number of such players and the results in the school tournament in sport of futsal was not significant (r(18) =-0.3, p=0.227). Despite the previous result, data indicate a better classification for those teams which have a higher number of players registered in the Portuguese Soccer Federation (table 2). Nevertheless, data demonstrate also a negative significant correlation (r (16) =-0.53, p=0.033) between the absence in the training sessions and the number of players registered in the Portuguese Soccer Federation.
Table 2. Number of players in the teams during the school term, number of players registered in the Portuguese Soccer Federation and its percentage and ranking in school league/tournament
Table 2. Training and competition of futsal in school sport (Lisbon)
As for the training process, it was found a high diversity in the number of sessions, its duration and its weekly timetable amongst the schools, being the effective volume of training during the week is considerably insufficient. Direct observation of the training process in the school teams in sport of futsal allowed to obtain various data which will be presented, analyzed and discussed below. They are the weekly frequency of training planned, the weekly frequency of training observed and the number of sessions observed in this study, the number of sessions observed but not performed, the number of observed sessions in each period and the number of training sessions performed in accordance with three situations: less than 50% of players, more than 50% and less than 75% of players and more than 75% of players (table 3).
Table 3. Weekly frequency of training planned (WFTP) and observed in each term considered (2º and 3º period), and the number of training sessions according to the percentage of players present.
Additionally, a high importance is given to specific exercises during the training sessions, namely games with opposition on two goals. Regarding to the process of competition at schools, it was found that is characterized by a very small number of games and it is organized and scheduled in a manner which is different from the opinion of some known authors (table 4).
Table 4. Number of official games planned and made by academic term, total number of games and gameweeks held and number of absences and administrative faults of school teams of the sample
Table 4. Training and competition of futsal in school sport (Lisbon)
Note: ? The number of games expected, was dependent on the success in competition, thereby qualifying for the later stages of the same, M = Medium
On the other hand, graph 2 reports the periodization of official games during the school season, taking the total games per month that were held, attended by the school teams of the sample. Is pertinent to point out that, for the official games of school sport in futsal, in the first period, it was found that no teams held official games, a situation confirmed by all teachers when asked.
Graph 2. Annual periodization of the competition in sport of futsal in school context in both ages (local stage)
Lastly, players are, in general, satisfied with practice of futsal promoted in Portuguese schools studied, being the younger players those who are significantly more satisfied (MW-Z= -3.25, p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THE PROMOTION OF FUTSAL IN THE PORTUGUESE SCHOOLS
Present conclusions and methological suggestions for the promotion of futsal in the school context, implies consider the following question: what players intend to form? By placing the players at the center of the all process, we can determine, on the basis of what is conceptually payroll, the process of training and competition to implement. However, it is desirable that, in addition to the strength and persuasiveness of the arguments that are used, it is linked and aligned with a consequent intervention in reality. Thus, because it highlights the importance of experienced and qualified professionals with knowledge and skills, it is suggested to establish a plan of regular specialized formation for teachers of all teams.
This is because it is essential that the management of technical and pedagogical activities of sport in schools is the responsibility of qualified professionals for the purpose. As everyone knows, the quantity and quality of experiences that the players will be able to experience throughout the process of sports training will depend significantly of the teachers` intervention. In organizing of training process, predict three or more sessions per week at least an hour in useful time after classes for all registered players in each school, distributed to maximize the application of the principles of training related to continuity and advancement, avoiding the phenomenon of reversibility and contemplating the principle of satisfaction of participants. These points should be recorded in an annual training plan formalized in writing, mainly in stages periodized training, with defining objectives, structure, contents and means of training used for each of these steps, whose design will be the responsibility of each teacher.
Moreover, it is also imperative to rethink the model of the competition because it is not consistent with the principles to be adopted in competitions for children and young players. To this end, it should be followed the scientific references in order to provide more moments of competition and a more appropriate periodization that allows games in the three periods of the school season and not only in the second period and sporadically in the third period. Also provide, a higher number of moments of competition without being in the school sport. It is essential to rethink the possibility of players registered in Portuguese Federation Soccer can participate in the school sport, because these players already have their own competition out of school. Moreover, because school` sport can`t be detached from reality that is our education system, reflecting and expressing their virtues, but also all its weaknesses, is necessary a reflection about control mechanisms used in schools. Alert to the importance of internal and external regulation that are effective, in order to follow, control and evaluate the whole process.
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