Pe integration - analyses of inclusive pe lessons (methodology study)
ABSTRACTInclusion of students with disabilities is considered as the current trend of the school education. Real situation in inclusion of student with disabilities into regular PE lessons is not highly developed. Assessment of real together communication and exercising among school-mates and included student should be realized as the background of successful inclusion. The purpose of the research study was to verify the method/instrument usable to analyze time effect formulated with “didactic categories” in PE lessons.
Ten PE inclusive lessons in elementary school level were assessed with instrument Didactic Inclusive Categories – Critical Incident Techniques, abbrev. DIC- CIT. Two independent observers were trained in this technique. The DIC- CIT is based on observation and categorical scaling combined with chronometry. Basic categories are: inclusive (Academic Learning Time - ALT, activity withwithout modification), parallel, separated. Recorded time in observed categories was: inclusive – ALT = 34 %; inclusive without modification – I-M = 36,8 %; inclusive with modification - I+M = 5,5 %. First version of verification the DIC-CIT instrument showed 91,0 % of congruency between two observers. In spite of the positive congruency more data are needed for better formulation of category “inclusive with modification through assistant support” and different types of inclusive students.
IntroductionInclusion, or its earlier conceptualization, has affected APA practice for over 50 years. Empirical research should play significant role in evaluation the effectiveness of APA inclusion practices. The topic can be desribed from several aspects: - school policy, legislation and historical incidents; - the findings in literature; - reality in practice and quality of practice; - education and training of professionals. In spite of the various recommendation for successfull inclusion in lifespan context or school context the basic question is opened: can we formulate which specific indicators are crucial for successfull inclusion? (Reid, 2010, 18). One of the important topics of the APA domain is integration in school setting (Van Coppenolle and De Potter, 2004). Inclusion of students with disabilities can be considered as the current trend of the school education.
The trend is supported by European (world) school legislation, in Czech Republic, too. (Czech School Law Act No 561, 2003; www.msmt.cz) A majority of published research studies covers teachers’ and peers’ attitudes toward the included children. Only limited information has been reported regarding the attitudes of included children toward inclusive process (Block and Obrusnikova, 2007). Real situation in inclusion of student with disability into regular PE lessons is not developed: real activity of included student as well other school-mates, their acceptance, satisfaction with PE related to the school level, the student age, diagnoses of the student, the content of the PE lesson, in the end of interpersonal relation among students in the class seem to be very important. Opposite the class environment and atmosphere can influence the determinants of successful PE inclusion (Dinold and Valkova, 2004; Meek, 2000; Obrusníková et al., 2003; Válková, 2003).So that we can assess interpersonal attitudes toward PE inclusion, the quality of inclusive PE lessons (from the aspect both inclusive child and the schoolmates) we need to know how many time (minutes, seconds) of PE lesson students spend within the real time in inclusive, parallel or separated activities during PE lesson persisting 45 minutes.
The instrument for mapping the data of real situation in PE lectures is missing, too. The purpose of the pilot research study was to verify the method/instrument allowing us to analyze and compare time effect formulated in “didactic categories” in regular/inclusive PE lessons related to: - school level; - the characteristics of inclusive child/student; - the content and the goal of PE lesson. The instrument for assessment and scaling of didactic categories in PE lessons, called DIC-CIT (Didactic Inclusive Categories – Critical Incident Techniques) is presented in the article. The strategy of presented article is methodology study.
MethodologyBackground of the instrument: didactic category of inclusive lesson can be formulated as inter-active relation among included student, class-mates students and PE teacher in PE process. Observation and chronometric recording of didactic categories was used. The source of definitions of didactic categories during PE lessons came from the principals of Critical Incident Techniques (CIT) which is categorical scaling of preciously formulated items of the process (Flanagan 1954). A basic differentiating criterion is definition of bipolar areas of units regarding the aim of the process, e.g.:
- positive – negative; promoting – interfering; verbal – non-verbal; existing - non-existing. The categories are recorded related to time units (seconds, minutes). The principles were used in pedagogy and sport pedagogy (Flanders, 1967; Piéron and Cheffers, 1973), in Czech environment within analyses of PE process in the ADI design (Analyses of Didactic Interaction). (Dobrý and Svato?, 1978.) The CIT principle was used for assessment of sports games process, particularly basketball match (Válková, 1974) and effect evaluation of basketball players (Válková, 1990). The intention to verified the instrument relevant to inclusive PE lessons environment set in the end of 90ies at Olomouc University (Kudlá?ek, 1997; Obrusníková, 1998).DIC-CIT categories: the instrument of inclusive PE lessons assessment DIC-CIT consists from didactic categories (Halami?ková and Válková, 2003; Válková, Ahmetasevic and Bartonová, 2010a).
? Integrative (all-together):
- ICE Integrative – Cognitive-Emotional, equal like ALT (passive)
- I-M Integrative, motor/movement active, without Modification (MINUS)
- I+M Integrative, motor/movement active, with Modification (PLUS): student or class
- ISU Integrative, Supportive (referee assistant, equipment keeping)
- IMA Integrative, modification through assistant support
? Parallel (alongside)
- PCO Parallel, complementary, additional, like others
- Pex Parallel, extra exercises (more intensive)
- SNO Separate, NO activity (not possible to include due to health, safety)
- STO Separate, Time-Out (student needs break, his/her independent decision)
- SOP Separate, Other Program (out of PE lesson)
Training of observers: so that the instrument can be used in evaluation of inclusive PE process and the results can be considered as valid and appropriate, the observers has to pass minimal training. The steps of training includes training in:
- knowledge of precise content of didactic categories,
- memory training of categories,
- video-training within advisory – no less than 5 lectures in different conditions,
- life-training with advisory and “coach” feedback – no less than 5 lectures in different setting,
- knowledge and practice with protocol recording (training during mentioned video and life training) and time-piece,
- knowledge and skills in system of summary counting.
ResultsTen PE inclusive lectures on the level of elementary school were observed with two independent and trained observers according to described process. Assessing of PE lectures were realized at 4 different schools in different cities. All teachers (women) passed the workshops focused on inclusive PE lessons. The classical structure of PE lesson was made, like: warming, main part, relaxation. The goals of observed lessons were focused on movement games and basic locomotion (walking, running, jumping, crawling, throwing, targeting). Autistic (7 children) and CP-walking (3 children) were included in the classes, only one child in class with maximum 18 children in class.
Recorded time in observed categories was: inclusive – ICE = 34 %; inclusive without modification – I-M = 36,8 %; inclusive with modification - I+M = 5,5 %. The found percents seem to be highly positive. Results can be associated with other authors (Meek, 2000; Halami?ková and Válková, 2003; Obrusníková et al., 2003; Válková and Kudlá?ek 2009) and confirm theses: inclusion in PE lessons is possible, diagnoses of child is important predictor, elementary PE and basic games do not need too much modifications. The summary of DIC-CIT processed in percents is considered as the result of congruency. Congruency between two observers assessment is presented in the table 1.
DiscussionThe instrument adapted for special purpose of assessment of inclusive PE lessons called DIC-CIT is usable in practice in situation of trained observers. The observed time in each category, compared in percents, showed 91,0 % of congruency between two independent observers in the first version of verification process (Valkova, Ahmetasevic and Bartonova, 2010a).
In spite of the fact the different time in the categories was found the congruity between observers was confirmed. Respected problems which has to be solved are: a) related to the type of disability of included children only four didactic categories were found, not complete spectrum. More lectures with different type of inclusive child (e.g. wheelchair users, child with hearing problems) has to be assessed; b) disproportion of 17,4 % between observers in evaluation of category IMA (integrative, with modification through assistant), it means “assisted inclusion” has to be more preciously defined.
ConclusionPrecise didactic categories formulation is possible to find in Manual of DIC-CIT (Válková, Ahmetasevic and Bartonová, 2010b) in recent time in Czech language only. In spite of positive results of congruency between observers more assessed inclusive PE lessons and more lectures with different conditions, different type of inclusive children is necessary to include in verification process. To check and re-formulate the IMA category is important, too. Even first version of Manual of DIC-CIT is prepared corrections will be provided, data of congruency processed with statistical evaluation and the Czech version to English language transformed.
Table 1. Congruency between two observers assessment of didactic categories in inclusive PE lessons (in percents)
Tabla 1.Pe integration - analyses of inclusive pe lessons (methodology study)
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